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2022-23 Colloquium Series

The Science Studies Colloquium Series takes place on Mondays from 12:15pm-1:45pm in the Arts and Humanities Building, 6th Floor, Room 624 or by zoom.

To be added to our colloquium email list please email

Fall Quarter 2022

September 26, 2022

Science Studies Program Meeting
SSP faculty and students only 

October 3, 2022

Bharat Venkat

Assistant Professor
Institute for Society & Genetics
Department of History
UC Los Angeles

Surrogations of Sensation: Scales, Manikins, and the Science of Body Heat

In the 1920s, researchers at the American Society of Heating & Ventilation Engineers developed a
seven-point scale for assessing what was described as “thermal sensation.” This scale was utilized to
elicit responses from research subjects about what was taken to be their perception of how their
bodies were affected by their thermal environments. Almost immediately, researchers were
confronted by the difficulties posed by human subjectivity and cognition for generating useful data:
amongst them, that humans could not reliably discriminate between the points on the scale, each of
which was associated with a thermal perception (e.g. “warm,” “slightly warm,” “slightly cool,” and
so on). In turning to what they described as “thermal comfort,” which researchers described as a
“state of mind” or “state of feeling,” these concerns only multiplied.
The seeming inability of humans to adequately and consistently identify thermal sensation opened
the door for what I’ve come to think of as surrogations of sensation. How might thermal sensations be
“felt” or “perceived” by non-human means, but in a way that paralleled human modes of feeling? In
other words, how could researchers know what a human felt without involving humans, without
having to rely on their answers? One possible solution involved the development of thermal
manikins, abstracted mechanical sculptures of the body that could emulate specific human
physiological function (in this case, the capacity for thermoception).
In this talk, I trace the history of the science of body heat in the first half of the twentieth century,
focusing primarily on the use of both scales and thermal manikins in the United States. In so doing,
I pay particular attention to the deeply racialized, gendered, and classed conceptions of the body that
underpinned this research. In responding to military and industrial demands for research about how
various kinds of bodies were affected by their thermal environments, I suggest that scientists and
engineers aimed to develop what we might think of as surrogate bodies that could sense, without the
epistemological problems posed by the intervention of human cognition: in other words, sensate
bodies without brains.


October 10, 2022

Chuncheng Liu

PhD Candidate
Sociology and Science Studies
UC San Diego

Driving-Data Governance: How Bureaucrats Perform the State Datafication in China

States collect, evaluate, and categorize data of citizens to increase their legibility and enforce governance. It has been heated discussed as “data-driven governance” in recent years under the context of states’ expanding data infrastructure and capacities. While raising heated ethical and theoretical debates, it is often treated as a blackbox with a determinist view. How the governance is unfolded is less investigated. Based on 10-month ethnography of three Chinese state agencies and more than 100 interviews with bureaucrats and ordinary citizens, I examine the datafication in action of a Chinese social credit system. The system attempts to advance the scope of the state’s vision in citizens’ social life by rating citizens’ trustworthiness with an algorithm containing about 400 indicators. Both positive and negative indicators, such as volunteering and mistreating one’s parents, are included in the trustworthiness score calculation.

In this talk, I illustrate how datafication practices under specific organizational, institutional, and relational contexts transfer data-driven governance to driving-data governance. Under these contexts, the ideal datafication is reconfigured during the interaction with the heterogeneous social actors. In this reconfiguration, credit data became not the mean of data-driven governance but the goal itself of a governance performance that drive data to the unintended directions. A narrow dataset with specific kinds of data that claims to cover a broad range of social life is produced. Through my examination of this unsuccessful case from an authoritarian regime with strong state and technical capacities, I challenge the determinist views and articulate how the state acts and sees from the below, showing its reach and limits in the transformation to a “data-driven” society. I emphasize the importance of understanding the state as a complex and hieratical organization, and the critical perspective of following policies, algorithms, and the state on the ground. 

October 17, 2022 (Zoom Meeting)

Stephen Molldrem

Assistant Professor
Bioethics and Health Humanities
University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston

"Against “Real-Time,” for a Materialist Data Ethics in Biomedicine and Health

Everything takes time. Despite this, a range of initiatives in contemporary biomedicine and health go out of their way not to account for this basic fact of social life. In fact, many programs that aim to hasten the pace of discovery and practice in health frame their goals using the idiom of “real-time.” To critically assess the ideology of “real-time” and the underlying conditions that motivate its use in health contexts, I draw on the method of historical materialism in the Western Marxist tradition. I situate the drive to erase time in the conduct of health research and practice within larger developments in contemporary capitalism that aim to accelerate the pace of production through processes of datafication. In response to these conditions, I propose a “materialist data ethics” as a set of strategies for conceptualizing, studying, and (re-)organizing labor in health research and practice – particularly in ways that emphasize the time-intensive processes that make biomedical innovation and public health action possible. A materialist data ethics would center the time, labor, people, technologies, infrastructures, and struggles that allow health-related programs to be implemented at all. Such an approach to ethical action in biomedicine and health would thus oppose itself to “real-time” and the conditions that support it as an ideology that informs contemporary policy and practice


October 24, 2022 (Zoom Meeting)

Alex Csiszar

Department of History of Science
Harvard University

Data and Academic Discrimination in the 1970s

This talk will trace the entangled history of new attempts to fight sexual discrimination in academia and the rise of technologies and algorithms for measuring scientific productivity during the 1970s. New legislation passed in the United States in 1972 opened the door to a string of lawsuits against universities claiming discrimination in hiring and tenure decisions. This happened just as scholars and entrepreneurs were beginning to develop tools to use citation data to evaluate and compare not only scientific fields but individual scientists. Early optimism that these new tools might provide objective proof of discrimination were tempered by an increasing realization that citations weren't quite the neutral and unobtrusive markers that some hoped they might be. What emerged from these entanglements by the early 1980s was not only a great deal of research in the field of scientometrics, but the beginnings of a theory of the politics of citation and calls for citational justice.

October 31, 2022 (Zoom Meeting)

Krystal Tribbett 

Orange County Regional History
UC Irvine

Into the Archives: My Path from UCSD to UCI

Currently the Curator for Orange County Regional History for UCI Special Collections and Archives, Krystal's role as a curator is to research, identify, preserve, and make accessible materials that document the history of OC. She is especially focused on supporting histories traditionally underrepresented in the historical record through community-centered archives partnerships. During this informal conversation, Krystal will discuss her path to librarianship which included a short stint as a corporate research for PETA. She will reflect on her experience working at PETA and UCI, as well as how she applies research interests, skills, and knowledge gained while a doctoral student at UCSD to her work.

November 14, 2022 (Cancelled)

Caley Horan

Associate Professor
Department of History
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

Investing in the Stars: Financial Astrology in the Modern United States

This talk traces the history of financial astrology in the United States, from the turn of the twentieth century to the present. The talk begins in the early years of the century when economic forecasting first emerged as a professional practice. The talk then moves to the mid decades of the century, focusing on financial astrology’s connections to technical analysis (or “chartism”) and the interdisciplinary, academic field of cycles analysis. The next stop in the talk is the 1980s, when financial astrologers blended calculative methods devised in the 1940s and 1950s with new computing technologies and a therapeutic, self-help ethos connected to the rise of New Age culture. The talk closes with a discussion of the mainstreaming of financial astrology in the twenty-first century and offers some conclusions concerning the significance of astrology’s long relationship with finance and market prediction in the United States.


November 21, 2022 (Postponed)

Christopher Willoughby

Visiting Assistant Professor
History of Medicine Health
Pitzer College

Masters of Health: Slavery, Racial Science, and the Making of U.S. Medical Education

Early American medicine operated on a paradox that Black people were anatomically distinct, and yet, their cadavers were used interchangeably in anatomical education. In this talk, Chris Willoughby will analyze the history of racial science’s influence on medical education, unpacking how this contradiction became internalized by medical professionals. Specifically, Willoughby will chart the rise of both medical schools and bio determinist racial science in the United States before the Civil War. Moreover, he argues that anatomical faculty were critical in spreading bio determinist racial science, giving physicians greater power and influence during the growing sectional debate over slavery in the United States.

November 28, 2022

No Colloquium


December 5, 2022

No Colloquium

Finals Week

Winter Quarter 2023

January 9, 2023

Science Studies Program Meeting
SSP faculty and students only 

January 16, 2023

No Colloquium
Martin Luther King, Jr. Holiday 

January 23, 2023

Katie Hale

PhD Candidate
Sociology and Science Studies
UC San Diego 

January 30, 2023 (Zoom)

Jill A. Fisher

Professor of Social Medicine
UNC Center for Bioethics
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

“Your Health is Your Wealth”: The Role of Race and Social Inequality in Healthy Individuals’ Participation in Phase I Trials

Phase I clinical trials test the safety and tolerability of new pharmaceuticals and typically pay healthy people to enroll as research participants. In addition to the risks of taking investigational drugs, healthy volunteers are confined—and often literally locked in—to residential research facilities for some portion of the clinical trial. Although participants are often assumed to be young, white college students, Phase I clinics actually tend to recruit men of color in their late 20s to early 40s. Motivated by larger social contexts of economic insecurity and racial discrimination, healthy volunteers often enroll serially in Phase I trials to stay afloat or try to get ahead. Drawing on two years of fieldwork in clinics across the US and 268 interviews with research participants and staff, this talk illustrates how decisions to take part in such medical research studies stem from profound racial and economic inequalities in the US.


February 6, 2023

Akshita Sivakumar

PhD Candidate
Communication and Science Studies
UC San Diego

February 13, 2023

Sarah Richardson

Professor of the History of Science and of Studies of Women, Gender, and Sexuality
Harvard University 

February 20, 2023

Presidents' Day Holiday 

Davide Carpano

PhD Candidate
Communication and Science Studies
UC San Diego

February 27, 2023 (Zoom)

Theodora Dryer

Research Lead - Climate and Water
AI Now Institute

March 6, 2023 

Miruna Achim

Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Cuajimalpa

Tenacious Stones and Surface Tensions: The Making of Mesoamerican Jade

Jade, a natural and cultural entity, oily and smooth to sight and touch, yet incredibly hard to carve, is distinctly associated with Mesoamerica, predominantly with the Olmecs, Mexico’s so-called “original” culture, cultura madre. Mesoamerican jade came into being as a tenacious category of study in the course of the past two centuries, as the stone became alternately the object of mineralogical, prehistorical, and archeological classifications. The science of Mesoamerican jades obfuscates their entanglements with jades from other parts of the world (especially China, but also New Zealand and Neolithic Europe) and the ways in which the aesthetic, scientific, and commercial appreciation of jade bring the sites of its extraction into unexpected arrangements with transregional actors. This paper focuses on the recent discovery of jadeite deposits in the Motagua River Valley in Guatemala, in the wake of a series of (climate-change-induced) disastrous storms, which destroyed tropical vegetation, laid the ground bare, and resulted into archaeological looting and illegal trafficking of the raw mineral to China and Taiwan. Specifically, in this paper, I inquire into the conceptual and political arrangements that have sustained the differential production of knowledge and ignorance about jades, making it possible for certain narratives of the stones’ use and value to become prominent, while the social and environmental violence pending on their extraction has been silenced and opaqued. I conclude by suggesting the colonial critique of museums has flattened understanding of complex local, regional, and transregional ecologies, where jade is both ancient and contemporary, natural and artificial, inalienable and exchangeable, shaped by commercial values dictated elsewhere.

March 13, 2022

Daniel Menchik

Associate Professor
School of Sociology
University of Arizona

Managing Medical Authority

Despite our interest in determining our health decisions, physicians have great control over our bodies, minds, and lives. How do doctors manage this privileged authority? This talk, based on my recent book, draws on over six years’ worth of ethnographic data to answer this question, incorporating factors internal and external to medicine. I argue that doctors manage their authority in the context of competing for status among doctors who share with them an interest in developing new knowledge. Specifically, the terms for status among doctors will be closely tied to the expectations of these peers regarding how knowledge is produced, and public expectations for the practice of medicine. Physicians compete with peers for status by making a case for the quality of the knowledge they have developed and would like to have orient practices profession-wide. Those seeking to have their knowledge widely adopted are observed by peers in a range of venues, and judged in terms of qualities that they would like to have represent the profession’s authority with outside stakeholders. Those doctors who put medicine’s authority at risk though engaging in behavior deemed culturally inappropriate are denied the opportunity for visibility that comes from being given access to medicine’s key venues. Consequently, these doctors’ knowledge is unlikely to become dominant, ensuring that these physicians potentially able to place the group at risk are denied positions that would enable them to represent the collective in a negative light. This dynamic and contingent model, I argue, better explains how authority is gained and lost in medicine than the static, institution-centered, and hierarchical model that presently dominates.

March 17, 2022

No Colloquium
Finals Week

Spring Quarter 2023

April 3, 2023

Science Studies Program Meeting
SSP faculty and students only  

April 10, 2023 


April 17, 2023

April 24, 2023 


May 1, 2023

May 8, 2023


May 15, 2023 

May 22, 2023

May 29, 2023

No Colloquium
Memorial Day Observance

June 5, 2023

June 12, 2023

No Colloquium
Finals Week








Ricahrd Boyd, Cornell University
John Helly, SD Supercomputer Center
Thomas Dunlap, Texas A&M University
Larry Schneiderman, UC San Diego
Greg Bantick, Pacific College of Oriental Medicine
Rick Jonasse, UC San Diego
JoAnne Yates, MIT
Joseph Goguen, UC San Diego
Rogers Hollingsworh, University of Wisconsin
Peter Galison, Harvard University
James Fleming, Colby College
Scott Miles, U.S. Geological Survey, Western Region Earthquake Hazards Team
Jean Lave, UC Berkeley
Sandra Mitchell, University of Pittsburgh.
John Kadvany, Principal, Policy and Decision Science, Menlo Park
Helen Rozwadowski
Kaspar Elkildsen, Graduate student at Freie Universitat, Berlin.
Craig Callender, UC San Diego
Rick Grush
Fernando Elichirigoity, Long Island University
Lawance Badash, UC Santa Barbara
Peter Reill


Ed Hutchins, UC San Diego
Paul Churchland, UC San Diego
Chandra Mukerji, UC San Diego
Patricia Churchland, UC San Diego
Steven Quartz, Cal Tech
Geoffrey Bowker, UC San Diego
Benjamin Sims, Los Alamos National Laboratory
Michael Root, University of Minnesota
Helena Karasti, Visiting Post Doctoral Researcher
Linda Strauss, Pacific Northwest College of Art
Dominique Boullier, Universite' de Technologie
William Clark, UC San Diego Affiliate and NSF Scholar
Kasper Eskildsen, Freie Universitat
Robert Brain, Harvard University
Wenda Bauchspies, Penn State Univeristy
Aaron Mauck, UC San Diego
Evelyn Fox Keller, Cal Tech/MIT
David Kaiser, MIT
Assistant Professor, Program in Science, Technology, and
Richardson, University of British Columbia
Martha Poon, UC San Diego
Bruno Latour, Center de sociologie de 1novation at the Ecole nationale superieure de mines
Charles Briggs, UC San Diego
Warwick Anderson, UCSF


Robert Engler, UC San Diego
John Cloud, 2002 SIO Ritter Fellow and Cornell University
Michael Curry, UCLA
Caitlin Zaloom, Berkeley
Robert Kohler, University of Pennsylvania
Paul Rabinow, Berkeley
Steve Jackson, UC San Diego
Miriam Padolsky, UC San Diego
Cathryn Carson, UC Berkeley
Nancy Cartwright, UC San Diego/London School of Economics
Anat Leibler, UC San Diego
William Bechtel, UC San Diego
Norton Wise, UCLA
Derek Jensen, UC San Diego
Mauricio Suarez ,Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain


Sigrid Schmalzer, UC San Diego
Jim Fleming, Colby College
Adele Clark, UCSF
Fran Berman, UC San Diego San Diego Supercomputer Center
Lisa Cartwright, UC San Diego
Jed Buchwald, Cal Tech
Doris and Henry Dreyfuss Professor of History
Sal Restivo, Harvey Mudd College
Robert Northcott, London School of Economics
Mary Morgan, London School of Economics
Grischa Metlay, UC San Diego
Ted Porter, UCLA
Andrew Hamilton, UC San Diego
Robert Nye, Oregon State University
Nadine Kozak, UC San Diego
Michael Bernstein, UC San Diego
Neil Thomason, University of Melbourne
Senior Lecturer, Department of History and Philosophy of Science
Zara Mirmalek, UC San Diego Science Studies Program/History Department
Martin Rudwick, University of Cambridge, Professor Emeritus, Department of History, UC San Diego
Mordechai Feingold, Cal Tech
Ernan McMullin, Notre Dame
Jane Maienschein, Arizona State University
Bernard Lightman, York University
Carmel Finley, UC San Diego


Klaas van Berkel, University of Groningen
Michael Evans, UC San Diego
Matt Crawford, UC San Diego
Grace Davie, UC San Diego
Richard C.J. Somerville, Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Ron Rainger, Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Patrick Carroll, UC Davis
Joel Braslow, UC San Diego
Jesse Richmond, UC San Diego
David Hollinger, UC Berkeley
Jonathan Erlen, University of Pittsburgh
James Griesemer, UC Davis
Domenico Bertoloni Meli, Indiana University
James Evans, University of Puget Sound
Natalie Jeremijenko, UC San Diego
Minakshi Menon, UC San Diego
Paul Hoyningen-Huene, University of Hanover (Germany)
Robert Westman, UC San Diego
Jessica Riskin, Stanford
John Beatty, University of British Columbia
Emily Thompson, UC San Diego
Paul Edwards, Michigan
Samuel Randalls, University of Birmingham (UK)
Lucy Suchman, Lancaster University
Joan Richards, Brown University
Martin Bunzl, Rutgers University
Ken Alder, Northwestern University
Stefan Timmermans, Harvard
Erich Conrad, UC San Diego
Monika Gisler, UCLA


Thomas Hughes, University of Pennsylvania
Simon Cole, UCI
Wendy Parker, UC San Diego
Maureen McNeill, University of Lancaster
Alison Wylie, University of Washington
Steve Luis, UC San Diego
Sophia Efstathiou, UC San Diego
Francis Longworth, University of Pittsburgh
Jon Guice, Green Mountain Engineering
F. Sherwood Rowland, UCI
Steve Huntsman, Naval Postgraduate School
Lesley Cormack, University of Alberta
Florence Millerand, UC San Diego
Robert F. Benjamin, Los Alamos Laboratory
Eden Medina, Indiana University
Kasper Eskildsen, UC San Diego
Erik Conway, NASA Jet Propulsion Lab
Tom Waidzunas, UC San Diego
Ray Chou, UC San Diego
Roger Bohn, UC San Diego
Lyn Headley, UC San Diego
Joan Cadden, UC Davis
Sheila Jasanoff, Harvard
Heather Flowe, UC San Diego
Christopher Smeenk, UCLA
Chris Mooney, author of "The Republican War on Science"
Dan Metlay, US Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board
Ev Meade, UC San Diego
John Heilbron, UC Berkeley
Pamela Long, Independent historian and Getty Scholar 2006-07


Alexandra Minna Stern, University of Michigan
Joseph Gabriel, UC San Diego
Sarah S. Lochlann Jain, Stanford University
Laura Harkewicz, UC San Diego
Sean Cadigan, Memorial University of Newfoundland
Kwan Min Lee, University of Southern California
Steven Epstein, UC San Diego
Morana Alac, UC San Diego
Brian Lindseth, UC San Diego
Eric Martin, UC San Diego
Adrienne Mayor, Stanford University
Matt Shindell, UC San Diego
Alper Yalcinkaya, UC San Diego
Bruce T. Moran, University of Nevada at Reno
Roddey Reid, UC San Diego
Margaret Garber, California State University Fullerton
Katherine Ott, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Peter Galison, Harvard University
Andrea Westermann, Technikgeschichte der ETH Zurich
Elizabeth Dunn, University of Colorado
Emma Johnson, UC San Diego
Cynthia Schairer, UC San Diego
Simon Werrett, University of Washington
Daniel Garber, Princeton University
Lindley Darden, University of Maryland


James Tabery, University of Utah
Jennifer Terry, UC Irvine
Tal Golan, UC San Diego
Sonja D. Schmid, Monterey Institute of International Studies
Tiago Mata, Technical University of Lisbon and Duke University
Reviel Netz, Stanford University
Thomas S. Mullaney, Stanford University
Tal Golan, UC San Diego
Kaushik Sunder Rajan, UC Irvine
Daniel A. Alexandrov, European University at St. Petersburg
Nancy Cartwright, UC San Diego
Samuel Kline Cohn, Jr., University of Glasgow
Nick Huggett, University of Illinois at Chicago
Gregory T. Cushman, University of Kansas
Sharon Traweek, UCLA
Jennifer L. Mnookin, UCLA
Karen Barad, UC Santa Cruz
Ruth Schwartz Cowan, University of Pennsylvania
Charis Thompson, UC Berkeley
Akos Rona-Tas, UC San Diego
Chandra Mukerji, UC San Diego





Marisa Brandt, UC San Diego
Richard Boyd, Cornell; W.Christopher Boyd, UC Berkeley; and Barbara Koslowski, Cornell
Gina Neff, University of Washington
Kirsten Ostherr, Rice University
Chandra Mukerji, UC San Diego
Sarah de Rijcke, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences
April Huff, UC San Diego
Matthew Bietz, University of Washington
Alexander Marr, USC
Werner Callebaut, University of Vienna
Ronald Numbers, University of Wisconsin - Madison
Bastiann van Fraassen, San Francisco State University
Harun Kucuk, UC San Diego
Tanja Paulitz, Universitat Graz
Joseph Dumit, UC Davis
Elizabeth Petrick, UC San Diego
Joel Dimsdale, UC San Diego
Christopher Hitchcock, California Institute of Technology
Craig Callender, UC San Diego
Florence Hsia, University of Wisconsin - Madison
Carl Cranor, UC Riverside
Inmaculada de Melo-Martin, Weill Cornell Medical College
Karin Knorr-Cetina, University of Chicago
Hasok Chang, University of Cambridge



Steven Epstein, UC San Diego Sociology
Mara Harrell, UC San Diego Philosophy
Mark Hineline, UC San Diego History
Pauline Sargent, NSF
Margaret Garber, UC San Diego History
Allison Winter, California Institute of Technology
Marta Hanson, UC San Diego History
Diane Vaughan, Boston College
Stephen Toulmin, University of Southern California
Jim Moore, UC San Diego Anthropology
Chandra Mukerji, UC San Diego Sociology/Communication
Barbara Herrnstein-Smith, Duke University
Martin Rudwick, UC San Diego History
Ben Sims, UC San Diego Science Studies
Peter Dear, Cornell University
Joseph Gusfield, UC San Diego Sociology
Elizabeth Bates, UC San Diego Cognitive Science
Judith Halberstam, UC San Diego Literature
Shirley Strum, UC San Diego Anthropology
Adrian Cussins, UC San Diego Philosophy


Linda Liu, UC Berkeley
Naomi Oreskes, UC San Diego History
Francesca Bray, UC Santa Barbara
Angela Lakwete, UC San Diego
Ira Livingston, State University of New York, Stoneybrook
Val Hartouni, UC San Diego
Myles Jackson, Willamette University
Adrian Johns, UC San Diego
Gabrielle Hecht, Stanford University
Nancy Cartwright, London School of Economics
Paul Teller, UC Davis
Pamela Smith, Pamona
Ted Porter, UCLA
Suzanne Kessler
Luce Giard, UC San Diego History
Margaret Meredith, UC San Diego
Susan Davis, UC San Diego Communication
Fred Spiess, UC San Diego
Vince Rafael, UC San Diego Communication
Eric Scerri, Purdue University
David Palumbo-Liu, Stanford University
Charlotte Furth, University of Southern California
Deb Harkness, UC Davis
Paolo Mancosu, UC Berkeley
Robert Adams, USD, Anthropology
Michael Shank, University of Wisconsin


Kathleen Walen, University of London, UC Davis
Geoffrey Bowker, UC San Diego Communication
Jeffrey Bub
Ronald Giere, University of Minnesota
Bogi Anderson, UC San Diego, Medicine
Philip Mirowski, University of Notre Dame
Pat Churchland, UC San Diego Philosophy
Andrew Feenberg, San Diego State University
William Freudenburg, University of Wisconsin
Stephan Fuchs, University of Virginia
Sigrid Schmalzer, UC San Diego
Lawrence Cohen, UC Berkeley
Leigh Star, UC San Diego Science Studies Program/History Department
Andrew Warwick, Imperial College, London
Nancy Nersessian, MIT
Joan Fujimura, Stanford